Typhoid is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Illness is usually characterised by fever, loss of appetite, lethargy and change in bowel habit. Constipation is common, but diarrhoea can also occur. Without treatment the illness can be fatal, with perforation of the gut producing peritonitis or severe bleeding. Transmission is by ingesting contaminated food and water. Contamination is most likely when cooked food is handled or left unrefrigerated.
Typhoid is prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Oceania and Central and South America.
Simple food and water precautions are recommended.
Vaccination is recommended for travellers to the above mentioned regions, particularly for those staying more than two weeks in areas of poor or uncertain sanitation. Typhoid vaccine is available in an injectable form, which lasts for 3 years. All the vaccines are available at Travel Vaccination Health Care.
Typhoid can be treated with antibiotics for 10 to 14 days.